Anatomy and physiology are biological sciences. Anatomy is the science of structure of a living organism. It studies the form and the structure of the body and its various parts like bones, muscles, nerves etc. It provides us with the knowledge regarding the construction of our body. How is our body built-up? What is it made-up off? How are the various organs arranged? Such questions can be answered through the science of anatomy.
Physiology is the science of functions of the body. It explains the working of the different parts, systems and various processes going on continuously inside our body. How do the organs work? How do the muscles, heart, brain etc. function and for what do they work? How do they coordinate with each other? How are they controlled? We can find answers to these questions with the help of this branch of science.
Both these sciences are deeply connected with each other. We study them separately for the sake of our understanding. In the present book we are going to study the fundamentals of these two sciences together.
The human body consists of three distinct parts, namely head, trunk and the extremities. The hands are upper extremities and the legs are lower extremities. Trunk is differentiated into the chest (thoracic) part and the abdominal part. These two parts are separated internally by a muscular curtain called the diaphragm. The human body is well organized for its different vital functions. Such functional organization of the organs in the body, is known as system. For example, the digestive system for the function of digestion, the respiratory system for the function of exchange of gases between the organism and the atmosphere etc. These systems are interdependent on each other. The total function of the body depends on the integration of these systems.
A system is constructed of some parts which are grouped together for a specific function. These parts of work together in perfect coordination. For example, mouth, teeth, stomach, liver, intestine, pancreas and colon work together as digestive system to provide nutrition to the body. Every organ is composed of four specific tissues. These tissues are organized in various proportions and patterns. Tissues are made up of a group of specialized cells.
For example, muscular tissue is composed of the muscle fibres, which are nothing but the modified cells specialized for contraction and the production of the force. Nerve tissue is made of nerve fibres, which are the modified cells to conduct the nerve impulses.
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