The pranamaya kosha (five+prana+vayus) is made up of five major pranas which are collectively known as the pancha, or five, pranas: prana, apana, samana, udana and vyana.
pranamaya kosha, governing the area between the larynx and the top of the diaphragm. It is associated with the organs of respiration and speech, and the gullet, together with the muscles and nerves that activate them. It is the force by which the breath is drawn inside.
Apana is located below the navel region and provides energy for the large intestine, kidneys, anus and genitals. It is concerned with the expulsion of waste from the body.
Samana is located between the heart and the navel. It activates and controls the digestive system: the liver, intestines, pancreas and stomach, and their secretions. Samana also activates the heart and circulatory system, and is responsible for the assimilation and distribution of nutrients.
Udana controls the area of the body above the neck, activating all the sensory receptors such as the eyes, nose and ears. Thought and consciousness of the outside world would be impossible without it. Udana also harmonises and activates the limbs and all their associated muscles, ligaments, nerves and joints, as well as being responsible for the erect posture of the body.
Vyana pervades the whole body, regulating and controlling all movement, and coordinating the other pranas.